Saturday, May 23, 2020

Human Resource Management ( Hrm ) And Human Resources

This report will provide an overview of the shift in Human Resource Management from collective to individualised approaches to Employee Relations and will also explain the concept of the psychological contract and consider its importance for contemporary Employee Relations practice. â€Å"The terms ‘human resource management’ (HRM) AND ‘human resources’ (HR) have largely replaced the ‘personnel management ‘as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organisation’s† (Armstrong, 2009, p.4). â€Å"Human resource management is defined as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation’s most valued assets-the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives.† (Armstrong, 2009, p.4). Human resource is the employees within the business, Human Resource Management is the management of the employees and to emphasis what they can bring to the business and monitor how the business can improve. â€Å"The overall purpose of human resource management is to ensure that the organisation is able to achieve success through people† (Armstrong, 2009, p.8), if the workforce feel valued, the work performance will be of a higher standard, this in tale can then boost the businesses production. Keynesianism People Management can be dated back to the late 18th century, the Industrial Revolution. Keynesianism was developed by John Maynard Keynes, a British economist in the 1930s who believed that in order toShow MoreRelatedHuman Resource Management ( Hrm )1508 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Human resource management (HRM) is the managing of human skills and talents to make sure they are used effectively and in alignment with an organization’s goals† (Youssef, 2012). The primary role of human resource management is to plan, develop, and order policies and programmers designed to make prompt use of an organization’s human resources. It is that part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an organization. I currently work for a HumanRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm )1562 Words   |  7 PagesHuman resource management (HRM) is an important strategic and systematic approach that provides each company with the oppor tunity to create policies and practices, as well as to establish administrative forms (Pfeffer, 2007). According to Armstrong (2009) HRM is an approach that deals with ‘employment, development, and well-being of the people working in organizations’. However HRM has evolved significantly through the years due to the rapid social, economic, political and environmental changes.Read MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm )1552 Words   |  7 PagesHuman Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an association that has emphases on the employment of, administration of, and providing direction for the employees within an organization. The Human Resource Management department members deliver knowledge, training, tools, administrative services, and lawful and organization advice. The HRM department is organized by very talented managers who has a mission to make sure the rest of the business has the needs for successful operation. HumanRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( H rm )1142 Words   |  5 Pageshe HRM Process Human Resource Management (HRM) is a combination of elements that work interdependently on each other to carry out the daily functions within an organization. Human Resources Management operates in several roles serving as a liaison between the organization and the employee. This dual role often present challenges within HRM; therefore it is vital the HRM Department is skilled on various issues that may arise on a daily basis within an organization. In this paper, I will discussRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm )1105 Words   |  5 PagesHuman Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an association that has emphases on the employment of, administration of, and providing direction for the employees within an organization. The Human Resource Management department members deliver knowledge, training, tools, administrative services, and lawful and organization advice. The HRM department is organized by very talented managers who has a mission to make sure the rest o f the business has the needs for successful operation. HumanRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm ) And Human Resources Development Essay882 Words   |  4 PagesLeadership in Human Resource Management (HRM) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have strong associations to people based initiatives within an organization. Employee actions and behaviors are inï ¬â€šuenced by HRM practices such as stafï ¬ ng, evaluation of employees, and incentives or rewards, and HRD practices such as training and career development. HRM is tasked with making the best possible use of the organizations human  resources, while HRD is an extension of HRM that focuses on the developmentRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm )2412 Words   |  10 Pages these human traits can bring considerable benefits to organizations† (Mullins 1999). However, when managed poorly they have the potential to limit organizational growth and threaten the viability of a business. â€Å"There are countless ex amples of corporate and project crises in the construction sector which have arisen as the result of people s behaviour, and it would seem that human resource management (HRM) has the potential to eliminate more construction risks than any other management approach†Read MoreHuman Resource Management : Hrm772 Words   |  4 Pagesa brief description of the models of HRM discussed in the first chapter of the textbook, and explain how each one relates to strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management (HRM) at its best seeks to manage people and resources to maximize economic and social outputs. Social output resulting from providing opportunity for advancement will ultimately make employees become true participants in the company. Bratton and Gold (2012) outline six HRM models, they are: the Forbrum, TichyRead MoreHrm And The And Human Resource Management1094 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The main purpose to write this essay is to analogize the differences in the field of HRM and IR. The Foundation of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management is based on intense academic study. The essay is an endeavor to illustrate by scrutinizing their objectives and the viewpoints or the approaches of this field. The first part of the essay is an attempt to define HRM and IR and it further continues to explain the differences and similarities between the two. In the lastRead MoreHuman Resource Management ( Hrm )1405 Words   |  6 PagesHuman Resource Management (HRM) seeks to manage people and resources to maximize economic and social outputs. Bratton and Gold (2012) outline six HRM models which include: the Forbrum, Tichy and Devanna model, the Harvard model, the Guest model, the Warwick model, The Storey model, and Ulrich’s Strategic Partner model of HRM. Forbrum Tichy and Devanna model of HRM is based on the principle of selecting, appraising, developing and rewarding employees who fulfill management strategic business interests

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Religion And The First Amendment - 834 Words

Religion and the First Amendment in Schools Recently, students were instructed to write an essay along with a pictorial representation of the person they considered to be their hero. Since one student chose Jesus as his hero and submitted a drawing of the Last Supper, possible legal complications need to be considered before grading and displaying the assignment. An examination of First Amendment legal issues that arise when a student submits an assignment of religious nature will provide insight into how the First Amendment applies in the classroom. Legal Issues Regarding Grading Historically, legal issues regarding the grading of assignments containing religious material have come to similar decisions. In Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969), a group of students decided to express their views about Vietnam by wearing black armbands to school. Although the district attempted to punish them for this, the Supreme Court ruled that the students were expressing a form of â€Å"symbolic speech† and were protected by the First Amendment, as long as it did not disrupt normal school functions. Similarly, expressing views of religion in school is protected if it does not disturb the educational process. According to Haynes and Oliver (2007), students have the right to express religious beliefs â€Å"in homework, artwork, and other written and oral assignments free from discrimination based on the religious content of their submissions† (p. 65). An educator mustShow MoreRelatedFirst Amendment- Rel igion Cases Of Religion1542 Words   |  7 PagesFirst Amendment- Religion Cases Religion is defined by a commitment or devotion to religious faith or observance. This probably was not the exact definition that the Founding Fathers knew but it was close. In the United States Constitution the very first amendment describes a few of the people’s unalienable rights. The First Amendment states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of theRead MoreThe First Amendment Speaks On The Freedoms Of Religion2059 Words   |  9 PagesHannah Bing Judy Hatcher WRIT 3037 17 October 2016 Free Art The First Amendment speaks on the freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition; so important, they found their place in the US Constitution. Even with these freedoms meaning so much to the majority of America, somehow today we still encounter differences in political and religious views that seem to provoke people to act violently against a piece of art or even physically against the artist that created it such as in theRead MoreAmerica s First Amendment Right Of Freedom Of Religion2122 Words   |  9 Pagesin a downward spiral. It has come to a time where, the fate of our country could fall into the hands of one of the many people who believe it is right to persecute those of a specific religion because the actions of a small group of religious extremists. The unalienable First Amendment right of freedom of religion would be denied to more than 2.6 million people, based on uneducated assumptions. In addition to this, America has come to the point where more than fort y-five million people live in povertyRead MoreFirst 10 Amendments of the US Constitution: Focus on Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press, and the Right to Assemble548 Words   |  2 Pagesï » ¿First 10 Amendments of the US Constitution: Focus on Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press and the Right to Assemble Balkin, J. (2004). Digital speech and democratic culture: a theory of freedom of expression for the information society. New York University Law Review, Paper 240. In this article by Balkin, he discussed the evolution of one of the important components of the Bill of Rights of the United States (US) Constitution, which is the freedom of speech. In his discussion of freedom of speechRead MoreThe Americanization of Religions1232 Words   |  5 Pages Religion is an essential and complex facet of the American psyche. The â€Å"Americanisation† of religion - a by-product of the first amendment is demonstrative of the role it plays in national identification. Transcendentalism, cults and Christian Zionism have all been a result of the â€Å"Americanisation† of faith. Neither the first or fourteenth amendment were in place at the time of independence and as such their evolution is inevitable. The first and fourteenth amendments essentially protect the establishmentRead MoreThe Right Of Free Speech And Freedom Of Press1363 Words   |  6 PagesThe right many Americans take for granted every day is the ability to speak to one another and to express their opinions through verbal and non-verbal means of communication. The First Amendment provides the right of free speech and freedom of press to the people. The Bill of Rights, also known as the first 10 amendments to the Constitution went into effect on Dec. 15, 1791, wh en the state of Virginia ratified it, giving the bill the majority of ratifying states required to protect citizens fromRead MoreThe Argument Of The First Amendment878 Words   |  4 PagesThe purpose of the First Amendment is to â€Å"ensure against government intrusions on personal freedoms such as freedom of religion, freedom of the press, free expression, freedom of association, and freedom of assembly (Michigan State University)†. So with the first amendment preventing against government intrusions on religion could a football coach at a public high school lead the players in prayer before a game? Well the answer is no, it is against the law for schools to sponsor or endorse speechRead MoreSex Marriage License Does Not Violate The Lemon Test1084 Words   |  5 Pages © Entanglement with religion: A public official allowing the deputy clerk to sign a same-sex marriage license does not violate the â€Å"Lemon Test†. However, making adherence to a religion can prohibit religion. Justice O’Connor concurred, that the Establishment Clause can prohibit in two principle ways and â€Å"One is excessive *688 entanglement with religious institutions, which may interfere with the independence of the institutions, give the institutions access to government or governmentalRead MoreExperience796 Words   |  4 PagesFirst Amendment: Religion and Education Grand Canyon University: POS: 500 October 20, 2015 Religion and the First Amendment An examination of the First Amendment legal issues that arise when a student turns in an essay and the displaying of religious nature for an assignment will provide insight into how the First Amendment applies to classroom assignments. Each reason will provide important insight, information, and court cases to better help in giving a view of the first amendment in regardsRead MoreThe First Ammendment and Dealing with the Separation of Church and State1741 Words   |  7 PagesThe First Ammendment and Dealing with the Separation of Church and State Is it unconstitutional for local, state or federal governments to favor one religion over another? Government can show favoritism toward religion by displaying religious symbols in public places at taxpayer expense, by sponsoring events like Christmas concerts, caroling, by supporting the teaching of religious ideas, or even by supporting the teaching of creationism in public schools. It appears the United

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Who Made a Serious Mistake Free Essays

Identifying the facts of the facts: Jean Safari was investigating a serious error made by a Japanese worker at a Japanese subsidiary of a US multinational company. It was founded that a component was inserted upside down and the entire batch had been pulled out of production to be reworked, thus making it a high cost for recovery. Jean had for information about the incident, and she was amazed that plant director didn’t know who it really was from the group of workers. We will write a custom essay sample on Who Made a Serious Mistake? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Even the floor supervisor did not know and even if he did, he would not tell Jean or anybody else about it. It simply just shows that they are all protecting each other in the organisation. The plant manager was polite and form enough to make Jean understand that the woman who was responsible for this act was indeed very upset that she had left the factory and went back home, also she was ready to resign. It was thanks to tow of her co-workers who convinced her to come back to work. The group who works with her is fully aware that she is new to the organisation, does not have anyone to look out for her or even see if she has been trained to do the work properly. That is why the whole group has apologized by a letter and they are also ready to apologize to Jean in public. But Jean doesn’t want the apology, she wants to stop such incidence from happening again, so she is wondering what she should do in order to prevent such acts from occurring again. Stating the problem What sort of collective action against the subsidiary should be taken in order to prevent such events? Setting the objectives 1) To find out whom really is the culprit who has caused such a huge loss? 2) List out a number of solutions for the problem 3) Choose the best solution out of the given choices ) Implement the solution that has been chosen Area of Consideration In order to reach a good and less harmful decision, a few areas have to be taken into account before implementing the final decision. The areas of considerations are mainly the stakeholders of the multi-national company. 1) Customers – Obviously they are the one who buy the products from the company in order to satisfy their needs and wants. But if there is a small affect/error that occurs, then it can lead to losing the customer. So the company should consider the customers if they are going to be affected by any changes in the business. ) Employees – They are the internals of the business, hence they make up the products and distribute it to the customers. The company should take the employees opinions into account before coming to a final decision and it is important to do so as it is linked to the case 3) Government Agencies (Legal Systems) – These are the place which includes the laws of the land and before coming to a final decision for improvement , the company needs to make sure that the decision that is being taken, is it legal or not. One should consider the laws of the land in order to avoid violation of the rules and regulations. ) Society – They are the people living as a whole in the same area or same country where the factory is located. A b usiness should consider its private and social costs and benefits of doing any activity in the business as it will have an impact (positive or negative) that can create an image infront of the society (good or bad) 5) Suppliers – They are the people who supply the necessary raw materials and equipment for businesses in order for them to produce goods and services. So the suppliers need to kept informed about changes that will take place in the business. Alternative Course of Action ) Getting rid of the employee and punishing the faculty worker for the error he/she has made which has also cost the company a lot. Usually it is done by individualists who remove the responsible employee from the work by force and give out a punishment or even a penalty for the error occurred. Advantage – By taking this decision, it was help in reducing the cost for finding a replacement. Disadvantage – If this decision is taken, it will give a bad impression to the entire employee a s this is how employees are treated if a mistake/error is committed. Not to mention the huge bad impression on the society as well. ) Motivating the employees in the business by providing them a monetary rewards like bonuses, health insurances. And then also non-monetary rewards such as education. Advantage – The employees will be provided with a feeling of confidence in order to perform better and make fewer errors in the business, hence focus more on the task. Disadvantage – This decision may give out a wrong idea to the workers that the company does not care about the errors that are made in the business. 3) Improving training, by providing courses for new and existing workers in order t encounter any future errors that might occur in the production. Advantage – The benefit of creating a more flexible workforce, helping to increase the flow of production, having made the workers more skilled and having more efficiency of the workers. Disadvantage – It is obviously time consuming and the cost to train employees will be high. 4) Improving the environment, changing the layout of the offices, even the colours of wall and the atmosphere to work in that will suit the employees. Advantage – Employees will be able to work without disturbance, there will be less stress and security measures can be provided as it will help the employees work in a flexible manner with less worries and stress. Disadvantage – It is time consuming and the cost to train can also be high. Choose the best solution For the problem which had occurred in the factory, a number of alternative actions were drawn out and out of them, the most effective decision in my opinion would be the third option, which is improving training for the employees. It is a decision that has been chosen so that workers feel more confident and less nervous while doing their job as they will be more skilled and perform better than before with less problems to occur in the factory. This decision has been taken so that employees will be able to work together more flexibly. It is advised that the other alternatives should also be used but after the training solution, so that performances of individuals will also increase with time. It is highly advised not to use the first option, which is getting rid of and punishing the employees as the Japanese are communitarians as it will have a bad impression on the workers as well as the society in various aspects. Cross Cultural Communication Assignment Who Made A Serious Mistake? Name – Asad Mudeer Student I. D. – 7639 Class and Batch – C-4, Evening Faculty – Dr. Sharon How to cite Who Made a Serious Mistake?, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Marketing Concepts and Theories

Question: Discuss about the Marketing Concepts and Theories. Answer: Introduction In China there is a ongoing transportation war between Didi Chuxing and Uber that is becoming more and more each day. The Chinese taxi market is dominated by Didi Chuxing, a local Chinese company based in Beijing and Uber, a taxi company based in San Francisco that was launched in China in the year 2013. Uber has been spending $1 billion, in order to compete against Didi Chuxing. This amount is equivalent to what it earns per year in the top 30 cities of its operations throughout the world. On the other hand, Didi Chuxing which holds a dominant position in the market has got huge financing from not only the local giants of technology like Tencent Holdings Ltd. as well as Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. but also from the global giants like Apple and was able to raise $1 billion funds from Apple. Overall, it was able to raise $2 billion in funding. Uber on the other hand does not have this kind of financing options available. Five Marketing Concepts The dominance of Didi Chuxing in the Chinese market over Uber can be related to its successful implementation of a number of marketing concepts and theories as given below Better Identification and Understanding of the Customer Needs A realisation is present in the world of modern business that the business undertakings need to be customer oriented and the marketers need to pay a closer attention towards the needs as well as the wants of the customers for achievement and maintenance of business relationships in a successful manner (Suensson, 2001). Didi Chuxing offers a variety of options to the customers as several distinct transportation services are offered by it. The customers can be picked up by a private car, taxi, shared car, bus or shuttle van while the focus of Uber is only on the private car rides. The reason for this is that Didi has carried out proper research to understand the needs of the local customers and understood the gaps in the market and according came up with the options (Gronroos, 1978). The company realised that in Beijing, an average employee has to travel about 15km to reach his or her workplace. This takes 44 minutes if the average speed is 20kmph. A high transport vacuum exists throughout China as the experience in the taxis, subways and local buses is not good and hence a need for better and more options. Customer Satisfaction in a better way The three Cs of customer satisfaction are consistency, consistency and just consistency and as the adage in marketing suggests that a happy customer is going to say a little while an unhappy customer will make sure that everyone knows about the negative interaction (Angelova Zekiri, 2011). Didi now encourages the customers to report about any negative incidents and for this they also have a WeChat system where they can report about bad taxi driver (Stinson, 2015). Besides the commuting options, a wide net is also being cast by Didi in terms of the geographic coverage which helps in increasing the customer base (Felix, 2015). Consequently, Didi handles over 11 million rides per day in comparison to 1 million rides per day by Uber in China in the year 2015. Cost Effectiveness The easiest ways of reaching the customers and which is more cost effective is through the use of online sites and apps for marketing the company (Olenski, 2015). The apps of large taxis do not get any transaction fees from the drivers of the taxi which leads to the acceptance among the taxi drivers. However, for hiring a private car, there is a charge of 3% applicable as transaction charge as it helps in the generation of revenue for these apps. Thus, offering of services like the taxi in private cars is not new but in China this is less disruptive in comparison to cities like Paris and the Government is more tolerant in China and so far a tough regulatory environment has not been faced by Uber for offering subsidies to the drivers. Rebranding for appealing to a larger audience Rebranding leads to the formation of an image of the product that is totally new and usually the old identity is lost (Goi Goi, 2011). The significant elements of the brand comprise slogan, logo and name and if changes are made by the company in these, it is significant that the change should create an impact which would be remembered by the customers, recognise as well as associate with. The change should help the consumers in recalling the brand name (Rosenthal, 2003). These strategies give the companies a competitive edge (Raja, N.S.; Zahad, S, 2015). The use of the name Didi Chuxing was a concept that was much more broader as in Chinese the meaning of Chuxing is commute or travel and thus it would have a greater connect with the customers in comparison to any other name. Identification and prediction of the future needs of the customers for maintaining long term relationships with them Goods as well as services are being made more progressive today as the businesses are looking for the unconscious consumer needs and producing goods in order to gratify them. The marketing concept takes the perspective of outside-in. It begins with a market that is well defined, focuses on the needs of the customers and integrates the various marketing activities affecting the customers. In turn profits are generated by the creation of last relationships with the right customers on the basis of value satisfaction (Kotler Armstrong, 2010). Developing autonomous features of driving and incorporating them in taxi-hailing apps fleet is the need of the customers in future. Car-pooling is fast emerging as a new option and journeys to the offices and shops are being shared by the people. Establishing self-driving cars is another driver for growth in future and they might make their appearance within the next two years. Conclusion A costly fight is being put up by both Didi Chuxing and Uber for attracting a higher number of drivers to sign up by providing them with subsidies and also attracting more passengers by providing deals like cash back. In a highly competitive business environment, more attention is paid by the firms to the customer needs so that quality products can be provided to them for satisfying their expectations which are ever rising. Didi always believes that a happy customer certainly means higher customer satisfaction as well as leads to customer retention in the long run (Hansemark Albinson, 2004). Didi Chuxing was known formerly as Didi Kuaidi but it adopted the marketing concept of rebranding in order to reach a larger number of customers. Didi is working on platforms for partnering with the developers of self-driving technology. Uber has also identified this future need and is currently looking for developing driverless cars. References Angelova, B. Zekiri, J., 2011. Measuring Customer Satisfaction with Service Quality Using American Customer Satisfaction Model (ACSI Model). International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 1(3), pp.232-57. Felix, E., 2015. Marketing Challenges of Satisfying Consumers Changing Expectations. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 7(5), pp.41-52. Goi, C.L. Goi, T.M., 2011. Review on Models and Reasons of Rebranding. In International Conference on Social Seiences andHumanity., 2011. Gronroos, C., 1978. A Service-Oriented Approach to Marketing of Services. European Journal of Marketing, 12(8), pp.588-601. Hansemark, O.C. Albinson, M., 2004. Customer Satisfaction and Retention: The Experiences of Individual with Employees. Managing Service Quality, 14(1). Kotler, P. Armstrong, G., 2010. Principles of Marketing. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Olenski, S., 2015. 7 Cost Effective Marketing Strategies For Growing A New Brand. Forbes, 21 November. Raja, N.S.; Zahad, S, 2015. ISOR Journal of Business and Management. 2015, 15(1), pp.58-63. Rosenthal, G., 2003. A name by another name: Responding to increasing role of marketing in higher education. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania. Stinson, M., 2015. China After Uber. medium.com, 18 September. Suensson, G., 2001. Re-evaluating the Marketing Concept. European Business Review, 13(2).

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Astronomy Final Essay Example

Astronomy Final Essay Number each question here according to its number in the Final Examination document provided by your instructor. 1. (a) Kepler’s 3rd law P^2 = a^3 (P = period in years; a = distance in AU) 75^2 = a^3 a = (75^2)^(1/3) = 17. 78 AU. (b) The further comets are from the sun, the slower they travel; therefore, it spends longer at the further distance. 2. (a) Star B is farther away. Its parallax is less. The closer a star is, the more its position changes against the background as the earth revolves around the sun. That is what parallax is. (b) 20 parsecs. One parsec = distance at which a star has a parallax of 1 arcsecond) Since this parallax is 1/20 as large, its distance is 20 times greater. (c) 65. 2 light years. (1 parsec = 3. 26 ly * 20) 3. (a) 10m would have the greater light gathering power (b) Both of the telescopes are in vacuum. The 10m one has area Pi r ^2, with r = 5m and the 2m one has r = 1. The ratio of Pi 5^2/Pi 1^2 = 25. Twenty-five times more light falls onto the l arge telescope. (c) The 10m telescope has a â€Å"Greater† light gathering power. (d) The factor would be about 25 times the light gathering power. e) Normally, light gathering power ratios are just the ratios of the areas. Due to the atmosphere on earth, there could be some absorption, however, since the wavelength is not specified, it wouldn’t hold true. Since the atmosphere acts like a gradient index lens, the amount of light that hits the earth telescope would have a very small increase thus refracting light towards the telescope. If there were no atmosphere, it would have continued at a larger angle and missed the telescope. 4. (a) d = 10,000 =100Mpc 100 (b) d = V d = 10,000 = 200Mpc H0 50 c) If universe is flat and composed mostly of matter, then the age of the Universe is 2 3H0 In the case of a very low density of matter the extrapolated age is larger. Age of universe = 1 H0 So the Universe is directly proportional to H0 5. Gx = GMm/r^2 G_new = GMm / (3r)^2 = GM m / 9r^2 (a) The force is 1/9 times (b) 9 times weaker 6. 15000/3000)^4 (a) The blue star is 625 times (b) more luminous Essay (Answer all nine Questions) Complete these answers in your own words. Follow instructions in the Final Examination document. Answer all questions according to the instructions. Number each question here according to its number in the Final Examination document provided by your instructor. 1. a. H-R Diagram A (Very Young Cluster) b. H-R Diagram D (Young Cluster) c. H-R Diagram B (Old Cluster) d. H-R Diagram C (Very Old Cluster) Similar to the sun, stars will spend a majority of their life on the main sequence. We can view this by looking at the H-R diagram, which shows a ‘dense concentration’ of stars along a constricted belt from the upper left to the lower right. The mass of the star determines where on the main sequence it is located and how soon the star will move away from the main sequence. We will write a custom essay sample on Astronomy Final specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Astronomy Final specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Astronomy Final specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The age of the cluster can be estimated by viewing a cluster of stars on the HR diagram in reference to where they end on the main sequence. 2. Seasonal variation of a planet depends on the frequency with which any given side of the planet changes its position with respect to the star. For a planet like Uranus, which has a high tilt (73 deg), the same side always faces the sun and hence its always summer on one side and winter on the other. Thus we can conclude that seasonal variation is directly related to the tilt of the planet. 3. a. Among the given planets, D has the minimum tilt – So the answer is D, which shows max seasonal variation. b. A planet will be geologically active if it has a high density, since that would assure wide variety of rocks and minerals and ores and less amount of hot gases; so among the planets, A has the highest density and is the most geologically active. 3. The younger surface would go to Moon A due to the fact that Moon B possesses many craters, which are clearly visible as the picture represents (this is clearly shown by the illuminated spots). Genesis shows that the craters were developed over time. Since moon A has far less craters, this means it was recently formed thus making it the younger moon. 4. a. The Hubble Expansion: As the distance increases, the apparent brightness of the object decreases meaning it becomes darker the farther away it gets. This technique determines the relative distances of similar objects. In addition, a phenomenon called the Doppler effect can be used to determine the velocity of an object. The sonic Doppler effect is caused by compression of sonic wave fronts, which can be generalized to electromagnetic radiation and other wavelike phenomena. The magnitude of an objects Doppler shift is a function of its radial velocity relative to the observer. Velocities of various objects, such as stars and galaxies, have been tabulated in our vicinity. An almost straight line with positive slope was obtained when the distance was plotted for various galaxies against their velocities. This shows us that the farther away an object is, the greater the velocity. This lends support to the Big Bang theoryif the universe does indeed expand in a manner consistent with the Big Bang model, then two objects that are close to each other should have smaller relative velocities than in comparison with distant objects. b. Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): This is the result of theorized energetics, which was discovered in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson. Their discovery showed microwave radiation emanating from all directions in our observable locality of the universe. As predicted by the Big Bang Model, the universe is filled with plasma at high temperatures. As a result, hydrogen can only exit as plasma with an ambient temperature of about 3000K. c. Primordial abundance of light elements: This is the observed abundance of elements in the universe. Examinations through the spectra of various objects shows us that helium makes up about 23% of observable mass in the universe, which is entirely too large to be accounted for by stellar fusion. Since stellar nucleosynthesis makes the abundance of lighter nuclei hard to explain, the Big Bang model theorizes that the nuclei were created during the fierce explosion. . Due to the numerous negative effects on the body, human space travel remains physiologically difficult. Many of these affects are due to long-term weightlessness. Examples include: muscle atrophy, skeletal deterioration, slowing of cardiovascular functions, red blood cell production decrease, balance disorders, and weakening of the immune system. In addition, without the appropriate protection, space exposure becomes a sever threat due to the environmental differences between space and earth – especially the lack of oxygen and pressure. Interstellar space travel consists of many problems, which makes human travel extremely difficult – even in the future. One problem is the amount of fuel needed for long-duration flights. In addition, we have to worry about the damaging effects of galactic radiation. Also consider the loneliness and boredom of generations of humans spending their entire lives aboard a spacecraft. In order to get to the nearest star system beyond our Solar System (Alpha Centauri), we would have to travel 4. 3 ly with a constant flight velocity of 50 km/s; which is roughly about 25,000 years. Although that velocity would allow us to escape the Solar System, it would still take 250 centuries to reach our closest star system. It is very unlikely that humans will be able to equip themselves with the technology, at least anytime soon, to make contact with extraterrestrial life. Even if we took into account the many factors in the Drake equation, galactic civilizations are probably spread out like small islands throughout space. Even if the average lifetime of extraterrestrial civilizations is 1 million years, our most optimistic estimates suggest that each is separated by ~300 ly. Additionally, thousands of sorties would have to be launched toward candidate star systems for any hope of successful extraterrestrial contact. In summary, although it may never become feasible, interstellar space flight is both uneconomical and impractical now and anytime in the foreseeable future. 6. Galileo Galilei was a very influential astronomer because he defended his beliefs in a time when the Roman Inquisition was in power. Galileo defended his idea of heliocentrism against the Inquisition and was put on house arrest. This did not stop him from doing what he loved. While on house arrest, he made observations and continued his work. His contributions to astronomy include the discovery of three moons of Jupiter, the idea that the nature of each planet is unique, identification of sunspots, and his continued examinations of the Milky Way and sea tides. 7. As of March 23, 2012, 763 exoplanets (extrasolar) within our Milky Way have been discovered by satellites such as the Kepler. Consequently, these satellites have been flying through space, uncovering hundreds of new planets within our galaxy. Recently, two planets (Kepler 62e and 62f) have been discovered, which orbit a sun similar to ours but cooler. These planets are at just the right distance that allows water to remain liquid an essential must for a planet to support life. In addition, these planets are very similar to the size of Earth. Because of their size and orbits, it is highly likely that they are either rocky or watery. The two planets are located 1,200 light-years away in a five-planet system orbiting a star dubbed Kepler-62. 8. The milky is a flat disk surrounded by a halo with a bulge at the center. Within the disk, lay clouds of gas and dust that amount to around 15% of the mass of stars. Although we cannot see the nucleus due to all the scattered dust radio, infrared, and x-ray telescopes allow us to see through the dust and show us that the core contains a dense swarm of gas and stars and a massive black hole. A majority of the gas and dust clouds lie within the disk. In addition, bright stars gather into spiral arms winding in an outward direction. The location of our solar system is about 26,000 ly from the center, lying on the inner edge of the spiral arm. 9. D C B A

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The Woman Who Explained the Sun and Stars

The Woman Who Explained the Sun and Stars Today, ask any astronomer what the Sun and other stars are made of, and youll be told, Hydrogen and helium and trace amounts of other elements. We know this through a study of sunlight, using a technique called spectroscopy. Essentially, it dissects sunlight into its component wavelengths called a spectrum. Specific characteristics in the spectrum tell astronomers what elements exist in the Suns atmosphere. We see hydrogen, helium, silicon, plus carbon, and other common metals in stars and nebulae throughout the universe.  We have this knowledge thanks to the pioneering work done by Dr. Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin throughout her career.   The Woman Who Explained the Sun and Stars In 1925, astronomy student Cecelia Payne turned in her doctoral thesis on the topic of stellar atmospheres. One of her most important findings was that the Sun is very rich in hydrogen and helium, more so than astronomers thought. Based on that, she concluded that hydrogen is THE major constituent of all stars, making hydrogen the most abundant element in the universe. It makes sense, since the Sun and other stars fuse hydrogen in their cores to create heavier elements. As they age, stars also fuse those heavier elements to make more complex ones. This process of stellar nucleosynthesis is what populates the universe with many of the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. Its also an important part of the evolution of stars, which Cecelia sought to understand. The idea that stars are made mostly of hydrogen seems like a very obvious thing to astronomers today, but for its time, Dr. Paynes idea was startling. One of her advisors - Henry Norris Russell - disagreed with it and demanded she take it out of her thesis defense. Later, he decided it was a great idea, published it on his own, and got the credit for the discovery. She continued to work at Harvard, but for time, because she was a woman, she received very low pay and the classes she taught werent even recognized in the course catalogs at the time.   In recent decades, the credit for her discovery and subsequent work has been restored to Dr. Payne-Gaposchkin. She is also credited with establishing that stars can be classified by their temperatures, and published more than 150 papers on stellar atmospheres, stellar spectra. She also worked with her husband, Serge I. Gaposchkin, on variable stars. She published five books, and won a number of awards. She spent her entire research career at Harvard College Observatory, eventually becoming the first woman to chair a department at Harvard. Despite successes that would have gained male astronomers at the time incredible praise and honors, she faced gender discrimination throughout much of her life. Nonetheless, she is now celebrated as a brilliant and original thinker for her contributions that changed our understanding of how stars work.   As one of the first of a group of female astronomers at Harvard, Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin blazed a trail for women in astronomy that many cite as their own inspiration to study the stars. In 2000, a special centenary celebration of her life and science at Harvard drew astronomers from around the world to discuss her life and findings and how they changed the face of astronomy. Largely due to her work and example, as well as the example of women who were inspired by her courage and intellect, the role of women in astronomy is slowly improving, as more select it as a profession.   A Portrait of the Scientist Throughout her Life Dr. Payne-Gaposchkin was born as Cecelia Helena Payne in England on May 10, 1900. She got interested in astronomy after hearing Sir Arthur Eddington describe his experiences on an eclipse expedition in 1919. She then studied astronomy, but because she was female, she was refused a degree from Cambridge. She left England for the United States, where she studied astronomy and got her PhD from Radcliffe College (which is now a part of Harvard University).   After she received her doctorate, Dr. Payne went on to study a number of different types of stars, particularly the very brightest high luminosity stars.  Her main interest was to understand the stellar structure of the Milky Way, and she ultimately studied variable stars in our galaxy and the nearby Magellanic Clouds. Her data played a large role in determining the ways that stars are born, live, and die.   Cecelia Payne married fellow astronomer Serge Gaposchkin in 1934 and they worked together on variable stars and other targets throughout their lives. They had three children. Dr. Payne-Gaposchkin continued teaching at Harvard until 1966, and continued her research into stars with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (headquartered at Harvards Center for Astrophysics. She died in 1979.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Marketing Planing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Marketing Planing - Essay Example It is expected your report demonstrates strong evaluative style you should draw on the relevant theories covered within the course (course book attached) you must relate your answer to your chosen organization ( eg : Barclay's, HSBC U.K etc) Harvard referencing Stlye This paper is aimed at looking at how the recent credit crunch is affecting banks and how this in turn affects international business. The paper argues from a marketing point of view. Here the paper looks into how marketing can help restore confidence and competitive advantage into some of these troubled banks. The recent credit crunch in the U.S is a cause for concern for governments, regulatory bodies, businesses, individuals, stock markets, etc. This issue is affecting world trade in that it is currently making it difficult for banks to provide loans to businesses given the significant losses encountered so far as following prior sub-prime mortgage lending. The first part of the paper looks into the institution in question. Here our institution under case study is the Barclays bank. The first part of the paper discusses the various ways through which Barclays bank could be affected by the crisis. The second part of the paper discusses the role of marketing towards restoring a com petitive advantage and creating value for Barclays bank. The last part of the paper presents the conclusion and recommendation. Bar... The last part of the paper presents the conclusion and recommendation. 1.1 Overview of the institution under case study -Barclays Bank Barclays PLC (Barclays) is an international and major player in the world financial system. It is headquartered in the United Kingdom, a global financial services provider and is engaged in retail, commercial banking, credit cards, investment banking, wealth management and investment management services. (Report 2008). The bank is present in Europe, United States, Africa and Asia using different strategies with respect to different markets. According to an independent analyst review, the Company operates in business segments: For example, UK Retail Banking, Barclays Commercial Bank, Barclaycard, Global Retail and Commercial Banking (GRCB)-Western Europe, GRCB-Emerging Markets, GRCB-Absa, Barclays Capital, Barclays Global Investors and Barclays Wealth (Company's Report 2008). Today, Barclays Plc is listed in major stock exchanges in the world such as the London, the Tokyo and the New York etc. Barclays Plc has consolidated its position through a series of mergers and acquisitions. For example, according to the company's web page, in November 2008, Barclays PLC announced that it has completed the purchase of the Italian residential mortgage business of Macquarie Group Limited. According to the company's (2008) report, Barclays PLC was ranked as the 25th largest company in the world according to Forbes Global 2000 (2008 list) and the fourth largest financial services provider in the world according to Tier 1 capital ($32.5 billion). It is the second largest bank in the United Kingdom based on asset size, although its